Postal installation is not very straight forward. The process is fairly complex. It’s because Postal needs several packages to be installed before hand, it can be used. I have tried to make it as simple as possible.
Requirement for Postal SMTP server
I am using Contabo for the purpose of demonstration.
In order to start with installation, you will need to connect to the server. If you are on you have to get SSH client for this purpose. One such SSH client is Putty. But if you are on Linux or Mac, just open the terminal and type [email protected] where xx.x.x.xxx is your server IP address.
First of all switch to root user
After that update and upgrade your Ubuntu
apt update -y apt upgrade -y
Next setup hostname
hostnamectl set-hostname mail.yourdomain.com
Updating DNS records
Login to domain registrar and create A record for mail.yourdomain.com
Now let’s begin with installation
Installation and Configuration of MariaDB
First of all, install MariaDB database on your server.
apt-get install mariadb-server libmysqlclient-dev -y
After installing MariaDB, it’s time to do some configuration to MariaDB
Answer all the questions as shown below:
Enter current password for root (enter for none): Set root password? [Y/n]: N Remove anonymous users? [Y/n]: Y Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n]: Y Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n]: Y Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n]: Y
Next login to MariaDB to create mysql database
mysql -u root -p
Enter your root password, then create a database and user for Postal. Here I am creating database name “postal” and database user “postaluser”. Also, replace postaluser password “your_password” with a password of your choice.
CREATE DATABASE postal CHARSET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_unicode_ci; CREATE USER 'postaluser'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'your_password';
Next, grant all the privileges to the postal database:
GRANT ALL ON postal.* TO 'postaluser'@'localhost'; GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON `postal-%`.* to `postaluser`@`localhost` IDENTIFIED BY "password";
After that save and exit from the MariaDB shell
FLUSH PRIVILEGES; QUIT;
It’s time to install Ruby on the server. By default, Ruby is not available in the Ubuntu 18.04 default repository. Therefore, we need to add Ruby repository first.
apt-get install software-properties-common -y apt-add-repository ppa:brightbox/ruby-ng
Next, update the repository and install the Ruby.
apt-get update -y apt-get install ruby2.3 ruby2.3-dev build-essential -y
Now we need to install RabbitMQ for message queueing. For that, we need to install few dependencies.
apt-get install curl gnupg debian-keyring debian-archive-keyring apt-transport-https -y
Add signing keys and few repositories
sudo apt-key adv --keyserver "hkps://keys.openpgp.org" --recv-keys "0x0A9AF2115F4687BD29803A206B73A36E6026DFCA" curl -1sLf https://dl.cloudsmith.io/public/rabbitmq/rabbitmq-erlang/gpg.E495BB49CC4BBE5B.key | apt-key add - curl -1sLf https://dl.cloudsmith.io/public/rabbitmq/rabbitmq-server/gpg.9F4587F226208342.key | apt-key add -
Now we need to add apt repositories maintained by Team RabbitMQ
sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/rabbitmq.list <<EOF deb https://dl.cloudsmith.io/public/rabbitmq/rabbitmq-erlang/deb/ubuntu bionic main deb-src https://dl.cloudsmith.io/public/rabbitmq/rabbitmq-erlang/deb/ubuntu bionic main deb https://dl.cloudsmith.io/public/rabbitmq/rabbitmq-server/deb/ubuntu bionic main deb-src https://dl.cloudsmith.io/public/rabbitmq/rabbitmq-server/deb/ubuntu bionic main EOF
After that update the repository and install Erlang.
apt-get update -y apt-get install -y erlang-base \ erlang-asn1 erlang-crypto erlang-eldap erlang-ftp erlang-inets \ erlang-mnesia erlang-os-mon erlang-parsetools erlang-public-key \ erlang-runtime-tools erlang-snmp erlang-ssl \ erlang-syntax-tools erlang-tftp erlang-tools erlang-xmerl
At last, install RabbitMQ.
apt-get install rabbitmq-server -y --fix-missing
Now we have RabbitMQ installed, let’s check the status of RabbitMQ
systemctl status rabbitmq-server
After that we need to create RabbitMQ vhost and user for postal. Simply run the following command:
rabbitmqctl add_vhost /postal rabbitmqctl add_user postal password rabbitmqctl set_permissions -p /postal postal ".*" ".*" ".*"
By default, the latest version of Nodejs is not available in the Ubuntu 18.04 default repository. Therefore, add the repository for that first.
curl -sL https://deb.nodesource.com/setup_12.x | bash
Next install it.
apt-get install nodejs -y
Before installing Postal, you will need to create a user for postal mail server on Ubuntu.
useradd -r -m -d /opt/postal -s /bin/bash postal
Now, enable ruby to listen on web ports.
setcap 'cap_net_bind_service=+ep' /usr/bin/ruby2.3
After that, install all the required gems with the following command:
gem install bundler
Next, install procodile with gem:
gem install procodile
Finally, install nokogiri with gem:
gem install nokogiri -v '1.7.2'
Install git with the following command
apt install git -y
Now, create a directory structure for Postal. Here all the files will be kept related to Postal
mkdir -p /opt/postal/app
It’s time to download the latest version of Postal.
Once the download is completed, extract the downloaded file with the following command:
tar zpxvf latest.tgz -C /opt/postal/app
Next, change ownership of postal directory.
chown -R postal:postal /opt/postal
Now, create a symlink for Postal binary
ln -s /opt/postal/app/bin/postal /usr/bin/postal
After that, install all the required dependencies with the following command:
postal bundle /opt/postal/vendor/bundle
If above steps fails and you get the error, then execute the following command. This error is because mimemagic got updated.
cd /opt/postal/app bundle update mimemagic bundle install cd ~
Next, generate Postal Configuration files with the following command:
Now, open Postal configuration file and edit it to reflect correct information:
Make the following changes as per your environment:
web: host: postal.example.com # The protocol that requests to the management interface should happen on protocol: https main_db: # Specify the connection details for your MySQL database host: localhost username: postal password: password database: postal message_db: # Specify the connection details for your MySQL server that will be house the # message databases for mail servers. host: localhost username: postal password: password prefix: postal rabbitmq: # Specify the connection details for your RabbitMQ server. host: 127.0.0.1 username: postal password: password vhost: /postal dns: # Specifies the DNS record that you have configured. Refer to the documentation at # https://github.com/atech/postal/wiki/Domains-&-DNS-Configuration for further # information about these. mx_records: - mx.postal.example.com smtp_server_hostname: postal.example.com spf_include: spf.postal.example.com return_path: rp.postal.example.com route_domain: routes.postal.example.com track_domain: track.postal.example.com smtp: # Specify an SMTP server that can be used to send messages from the Postal management # system to users. You can configure this to use a Postal mail server once the # your installation has been set up. host: 127.0.0.1 port: 2525 username: # Complete when Postal is running and you can password: # generate the credentials within the interface. from_name: Postal from_address: [email protected]
Save and close the file with CTRL + X. Then, initialize database with the following command:
Next, you will need to create a admin user for Postal.
Answer all the questions as shown below:
Postal User Creator Enter the information required to create a new Postal user. This tool is usually only used to create your initial admin user. E-Mail Address : [email protected] First Name : Admin Last Name : Postal Initial Password: : ********* User has been created with e-mail address [email protected]
Finally, start the Postal application.
Now, check the status of Postal
Just in case, if you like to stop postal service, you can do so by
Create Systemd Service file for Postal
Next, you will need to create a systemd service file to manage Postal service. This can be done with the following command:
Add the following lines:
[Unit] Description=Postal Mail Platform After=mysql.service rabbitmq-server.service Wants=mysql.service rabbitmq-server.service [Service] ExecStart=/usr/bin/postal start ExecStop=/usr/bin/postal stop ExecReload=/usr/bin/postal restart User=postal Restart=on-failure Type=forking [Install] WantedBy=mysql.service rabbitmq-server.service
Save and close the file. Then, reload the systemd with the following command:
Next, start Postal service and enable it to start on boot with the following command:
systemctl start postal systemctl enable postal
You can check the status of Postal service with the following command:
systemctl status postal
Install and Configure Nginx
Next, you will need to install Nginx to access Postal mail server. First, install Nginx with the following command:
apt-get install nginx openssl -y
Next, copy Nginx configuration file with the following command:
cp /opt/postal/app/resource/nginx.cfg /etc/nginx/sites-available/default
Next, create a self-signed SSL certificate with the following command:
mkdir /etc/nginx/ssl/ openssl req -x509 -newkey rsa:4096 -keyout /etc/nginx/ssl/postal.key -out /etc/nginx/ssl/postal.cert -days 365 -nodes
Answer all the questions as shown below:
Generating a 4096 bit RSA private key ...............................++ .................++ writing new private key to '/etc/nginx/ssl/postal.key' ----- You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated into your certificate request. What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN. There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank For some fields there will be a default value, If you enter '.', the field will be left blank. ----- Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:IN State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:Bihar Locality Name (eg, city) :Patna Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:IT Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) :IT Common Name (e.g. server FQDN or YOUR name) :Dhiraj Email Address :[email protected]
Next, open the Nginx default virtual host file and define your domain:
Here, you need to make the following changes:
Save and close the file. After that, restart Nginx service with the following command:
systemctl restart nginx
Access Postal Web Interface
Now, open your web browser and type the URL
https://mail.yourdomain.com. You will be redirected to the admin page. Login with email id and password.
After that, you will postal dashboard.
In, next article we will learn to create organization, domain management and SMTP creation, etc.
Installing Postal is somewhat complex procedure. Nonetheless, it’s worth to give it a try considering the Postal features.